Several people have influenced American gourmet cooking, including James Beard, Jacques Pepin, James Hemings, and Careme. These chefs are considered the fathers of American-style gourmet cooking. Although their cuisine has been attributed to different people, the same concepts can be applied to each.nJames BeardnJames Beard is arguably the father of American-style gourmet cooking. He has become a household name with his many cookbooks and TV shows. He has inspired a new generation of cooks and culinary enthusiasts alike. His early experiences as a bedridden child influenced his ideas about cooking and the kitchen, while his life in France and China shaped his vision of the restaurant and the kitchen.nIn the 1950s, Beard became a chef and brand name in the culinary world. His friendship with other food luminaries led to numerous collaborations and publications. Beard founded his cooking school in 1955 and taught cooking for over thirty years. In addition to his cookbooks, he also wrote a guide for other culinary publications.nBeard authored 22 books, appeared on television, and made personal appearances. He returned to Reed College in 1976 to receive an honorary degree. He was presented with an honorary degree by President Paul Bragdon. He also made a public appearance at the Commencement and was honored with a standing ovation from the audience.nAfter his death, James Beard was known as the “Father of American Gastronomy.” His name remains synonymous with American food. His foundation, the James Beard Foundation, continues to be essential in the culinary world. Through the years, it has grown from a celebratory body of American gastronomy to a thought leader and changemaker.nBeard’s travels were legendary, and he brought French cuisine to America. He also became an influential television personality. His cooking show was the first on television in the United States, and he wrote over 20 cookbooks. During his career, Beard influenced thousands of professional chefs. In addition to his cookbooks, he ran his restaurant on Nantucket in the 1940s.nBeard was a man with a unique image in American society. His upbeat personality and six-foot-tall stature made him an important figure in the food world. He significantly influenced the food industry after WWII when post-war prosperity enabled the middle class to dream of eating better than before.nJacques PepinnPepin began cooking at an early age, working at his parent’s restaurant in Lyon, France. After working as a personal chef for President Charles de Gaulle during World War II, he immigrated to the United States in 1959. He rejected an invitation to cook in the White House but eventually worked with a French chef, Pierre Franey, at New York’s Le Pavillon. He also worked for the Howard Johnson Company, where he set up a large commissary at the World Trade Center.nUpon moving to the United States in 1959, Pepin worked at the historic Le Pavillon restaurant in New York City. He then became the director of research and development for Howard Johnson’s restaurant chain, where he gained experience in food chemistry and mass production. He also earned a Master’s degree in French literature from Columbia University.nIn addition to his cooking expertise, Pepin is an author, lecturer, and television host. His popular television shows have helped demystify French cooking for the American public. Currently, he’s getting ready to release a new television series called Essential Pepin.nPepin also sees the similarities between cooking and painting. While paintings can be reproduced, meals are unique and have a lasting memory. People take time to enjoy a meal and remember the taste. It’s similar to a painting, but the differences are far more profound.nA French chef, Pepin has won several awards and hosted several public television shows. He’s also a contributing chef to several food publications. He has also worked with Julia Child and has received several honors in the culinary world. In addition, he is the author of several cookbooks.nJames HemingsnA documentary about Hemings will be released later this year, and his remarkable career will be featured in a new season of podcast episodes. He was also instrumental in ending the famous chestnut quarrel between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. Hemings was a meticulous note-taker with a strong sense of proprietary recipe knowledge. His passion for cooking and his skill with ingredients led him to work for Jefferson and his family in Paris.nDuring the 18th century, Hemings was the most talented chef in America. He was also the first American to study abroad in France. He trained with the most renowned chefs in Classical French cuisine. He served as Jefferson’s chef and introduced many dishes we enjoy today. In 1796, Jefferson freed him from slavery, and Hemings cooked the famous dinner between the two political leaders.nThe James Hemings Foundation has been established to help honor the American chef. The organization sponsors events and raises money to help culinary students. It also has an educational mission to promote Hemings’ impact on American cuisine. It also offers a chance to experience Hemings’ recipes.nHemings was born in Virginia and was part of American history’s most famous slave family. His sister, Sally, was a companion of Thomas Jefferson and the mother of several of Jefferson’s children. James Hemings became Jefferson’s property when he was eight years old. Jefferson then sent him to France, where he received training in French cuisine.nJames Hemings’ culinary style greatly influenced Virginia plantation cuisine. It spread north and south and influenced generations of plantation cooks. Later, he introduced “Potage” stew stove technology to the United States. His recipes also influenced black professional caterers and chefs.nCaremenCareme’s life began in Paris, where he was the 16th child of impoverished parents. At the height of the French Revolution, his parents abandoned him, forcing him to work in a kitchen as a kitchen boy to earn money. At fifteen, he worked for room and board and finally applied for an apprenticeship with a wealthy pastry chef.nAs a teenager, Careme began working at a patisserie near the Palais-Royal. The owner, Sylvain Bailly, saw the young boy’s talent and encouraged him to pursue formal education. During this time, he became interested in architecture and would spend hours studying in a library and come back to the shop to reproduce classical architectural forms in sugar.nCareme was a hard worker and a great cook. He also had an affinity for pastry and was one of the first to master the art of “cold” cuisine. In addition to his culinary skills, he developed innovative methods to preserve the taste and appearance of dishes. Many of today’s chefs owe their careers to Careme.nCareme’s culinary contributions to haute cuisine can’t be overstated. He was the first to modernize the chef’s uniform and introduce a new style of hat (the toque) still worn by chefs. Careme also helped develop a fresh cuisine by establishing four basic sauces, eventually becoming the basis of hundreds of dishes.nCareme’s influence on American cooking was vast and varied. Careme forged the art of French haute cuisine in the early 19th century. He invented four “mother sauces” that served as the central building blocks of many French entrees. He also perfected the souffle and was the first to pipe meringue using a pastry bag. He also introduced the standard chef’s uniform that included a double-breasted white coat. His uniform conveyed a sense of cleanliness. In his world, appearances were everything.